Tourmalines are silicate minerals, they are rare or very rare minerals. Tourmaline is a natural semi-precious stone. It was discovered in Brazil. It has a high ion content and emits far infrared (FIR) radiation.
The name Turmalin comes from the Sinhala word "turmali", which means that when heated, the object has the ability to raise ash. These minerals are named in various ways according to their color. Among them we meet achroite, rubelite, verdelite, indigolite, all these tourmalines have a common name - elbaite. The elbaites are blue, green and red. Black tourmaline is schörl, brown tourmaline is called Dravite. Multi-colored tourmalines also have their own special names. The black-terminated (green) wardelite is called the "Maur's head", the "Turkish head" is the red-terminated mineral. The name "Turkish head" comes from the red headgear - fez worn by Turks. One of the most interesting varieties of tourmaline is watermelon tourmaline, green on the outside and pink or reddish on the inside.
Tourmalines usually form crystals with a bar, rod or needle shape. They occur in compact, rod-shaped, granular, acicular and radial clusters. Tourmalines with a radiant focus are called "tourmaline suns". Some tourmalines exhibit pleochroism and the cat's eye effect. There is also the "alexandrite effect" - in natural light they are yellowish green, in artificial light - orange-red. Tourmaline is easily electrified, attracts dust, scraps of paper (it is pyrogen and piezoelectric). Due to this phenomenon, tourmaline should be cleaned more often than other stones. To clean this mineral, wash it in lukewarm water and leave it in the sun.